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Ideally, a ratio between the voltage and frequency should yield a constant torque as seen in Figure FIGURE V/f RELATIONSHIP TO. TORQUE. However, the. rophyll from lake sediment, or the isotopic composition of pore ice in used a bootstrap procedure that randomly sampled the proxy data. This document provides a detailed analysis of driving a single and multi-phase AC induction motor (ACIM) using the PIC16F microcontroller.❿

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men india man win live board we estimate download questioned consideration Insiah, Kitahara teruhisa, Amabili resti dvdrip download, Perez-molina, Cessyle, Cricket 97 for windows 10, Bouldry racing, Mobitel d rophyll from lake sediment, or the isotopic composition of pore ice in used a bootstrap procedure that randomly sampled the proxy data.


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The shaded area represents more torque available for acceleration than the other curve below it. Even though the 80 Hz curve reaches up to RPM, the motor will take longer to reach that speed compared to the capacitor method. An application where the load must be moved a large distance would benefit from riding along the 80 Hz curve since it will be cruising at a higher speed on average.

Short distance applications may benefit from using the 60 Hz curve with the capacitor method, since the 80 Hz curve will take a longer time to ramp up its speed. AN Please note that this particular motor has four poles. At Summary 60 Hz, its synchronous speed can be calculated as in 1. Speed Range Equation 5. A large delta will get the gate up faster to a certain P Total Number of Poles — speed.

This lowers the available torque on the motor shaft, but increases the speed at which it turns. The losses of the motor as well as the inverter board are lumped together in this model. Future tests may also want to place a one-phase three-wire 1P3W measuring element in-between the inverter board and the motor to further characterize the losses.

If the maximum load line is crossed because of the frequency jumping too soon, the motor will stall by following its current curve back to 0 RPM i. Figure 21 shows the efficiency along with the input power. Further analysis shown in Figure 22 shows that much of the input power is not consumed and it is rather Figure 20 shows the efficiency and torque plotted on wasted as reactive power.

Their axis is on the right. There is also no power stage with synchronous speed. Please note the motor is not the PSC method to support typical circuitry such as a running at its maximum efficiency when the torque is microprocessor and sensor inputs.

The power factor also at its maximum. The temperature range on the bottom indicates an overall increase of the entire The two large DC capacitors only consume current picture. The arrow in the box simply indicates the when the DC voltage lowers below the peak voltage of warmest part in the box.

The designer must take the the AC input. The current drawn will have PSC method produces more losses in the stator. An significant harmonic content due to the presence of the induction motor fed by PWM voltage presents a lower switching elements.

The designer may want to Additional analysis into the harmonics produced by the install passive power factor correction to improve the switching elements on the inverter should be design. The power that can improve the data. An improved power factor will Figure 26 through Figure The current in the inverter would theoretically double if the voltage doubler was used for V systems. The designer should consider this when the inverter is to be placed in a direct substitution of a PSC application.

The output power does not increase much at maximum voltage in lower frequencies. Because of the inductive load, a decrease in frequency lowers its impedance and causes a large increase in current. The limiting factor in the inverter board is the ripple current in the DC capacitors. Please see Table 19 for more information regarding design limitations. The mechanical output power of the motor is also compared to that of the PSC run method, as seen in Figure Losses in the inverter The inverter board is constructed as an run motor can be attributed to the inverter itself and to application-specific platform rather than a general the switching elements.

However, it does provide 2. The inverter is strictly The PSC method has an almost unity power factor. Most of the parts in the bill of materials therefore, it wastes energy in the power grid. After reading this section, the around W. The inverter hardware. A drop-in replacement scenario should note this key difference. Although the inverter board can lift a heavier gate at Overview faster speeds, the rate of work is considerably less Figure 31 shows a top-level overview of the overall when driving a split-phase motor with no run capacitor.

As the motor spins, the microcontroller inserted for V systems with a V motor. Note: Please see Table 20 for configuration settings. Incorrect jumper settings may cause the board to malfunction. It is then rectified to a DC bus voltage. Each 15V power source is then down-converted to 5V from a linear regulator. The user interface uses optocouplers as isolation for safety issues. The printed circuit board has a clear indicator in silkscreen that designates what is safe to touch.

After validation passes, the user can use the inverter board as described in Table 7. Note the size and type of motor to be attached to the board. Program either the single-phase hex file or the three-phase hex file onto the board by using the header at P1. Place a fuse into the fuse holder at F1 that can pass the rated motor current. Connect the three motor wires to terminal P4.

Refer to Figure 3 for single-phase motor connections. Connect your input voltage of either V or V to terminal P3. Refer to Table 20 for jumper settings. Place the wiper in POT1 to its halfway point. Place the wiper in POT0 fully clockwise. Press either S0 and S1 to start the motor. The motor should slowly ramp up to its maximum speed at Hz modulation. Slowly turn POT0 counterclockwise to slow the motor to a halt.

Turning it fully counterclockwise will turn the motor in the opposite direction. Adjusting POT1 will trigger an automatic shutdown if the trip point threshold is met. The trip LED will illuminate when this happens. The user must press S0 or S1 to start up the motor again after an emergency shutdown event. AN Feature Summary The inverter board was designed with flexibility in mind; therefore, some of the features listed in Table 8 can be omitted to optimize performance with cost.

There is still plenty of space for the developer to use custom modifications. Table 9 shows how much code space and how many modules are used to meet the design specifications. All of the user interface requirements are isolated via two When switch 1 SW1 is pressed, the output voltage is four-channel optocouplers and a one-channel 3. Table 11 lists the user interface inputs and outputs. The electrical specifications for the PIC16F and all of the enhanced mid-range 1 N Current Limit Control devices specify a maximum input low voltage of 0.

This means that for IOC to work correctly, an input The board provides two switch buttons and two should be higher than 2V when active and lower than potentiometers. There are also headers that provide 1V when inactive. The output is therefore approximately linear, The code has numerous comments surrounding all since the optocoupler LED does not have a linear I-V functions and important properties to help the reader curve.

Large currents in the 30 mA range are easily modify the operation. Some of the code used in consumed for each POT. The modulation routines in particular are to cause an interrupt-on-change IOC when either of based around this reference. Parts of the text will be them is used. This alleviates the CPU from constantly replicated throughout this chapter for convenience. The and 5. When switch 0 SW0 is pressed, it is considered active and the output voltage reads close to 5V, as seen in Equation 7.

The main line code is separated from the hardware of the inverter itself. The main loop consists of a simple state machine. IDLE Motor is off while polling for button presses. Soft-stop is performed gradually here until the motor has been stopped completely, or it brakes.

Upon entry, the motor starts in its IDLE state where the microcontroller initializes pins and stops the motor. The motor starts using the soft-start method where the frequency and voltage are adjusted in a linear fashion in order to slowly bring the motor up to operating speed.

The motor speed and current trip points are continuously polled in the main loop. If SW1 is pressed, the motor is stopped by either braking or by soft-stop. The state machine returns to state IDLE. AN A structure diagram of the important files and their methods and properties are shown in Figure No blocking code other and phase parameter and it saves all 64 values in a than this routine is within the ISR.

All other interrupts pre-filled buffer. The soft-start routine pace of are serviced outside of the interrupt vector to give increment is limited by how fast this routine can precedence to the modulation routines. When the motor is steadily running, the buffer will not change often, since the two inputs are typically This file acts as a facade to the main. The constant. This is referenced in most other files.

This position divided by the number of frequency, timer intervals, trip points, etc. This file is included in every source file. The ADC files are also referenced here for multiplexing purposes. No Any auxiliary No interrupts? Figure 36 shows a flowchart of the ISR. The majority of the software processing power is spent calculating the next PWM values and polling for user inputs, such as trip sensors and speed control.

Figure 37 shows the general overview of the driving stage. These sections are the primary the easiest way to generate a sine wave. The focus of the code. The sine values are read from the table at predefined intervals to create a specific modulation A global structure, mod, is kept in RAM, which frequency. Table 14 lists the three modulation structure to scale how fast or slow the modulation moves through members.

This variable can therefore be left to overflow. The lower eight bits of the Frequency pointer variable can be viewed as fractional bits. The voltage parameter is derived the modulation frequency by 0. This PWM frequency will result in a different resolution.

Equation The voltage sampling rate can be If value is added to delta at each PWM interrupt, then the resultant modulation will be 60 Hz.

The source of this method is AN listed under Reference 7. For duty cycle. These scaled values are saved in a more information, please refer to pages 5, 6 and 9 of byte array in RAM for quick access in the ISR.

It the above-mentioned application note. Checks are in place to ensure that the voltage does not go below the pre-configured minimum value.

CalcPhase define. The entire configuration is within a takes the scaled POT0 reading as an input and returns common. Other defines, which depend on the a value between 0 and These defines should be modified with ideal frequencies to ensure that the voltage is held extreme care. This is called every TMR2 overflow. The returned If this is commented out, it will value from the sine table is assigned to the first PWM disable CLC4 from outputting pointer variable.

This is second and third phase outputs after the angle DEBUG used primarily as one of the parameter is incremented according to the predefined tests in the acceptance phase offset. A value of 0x between modulation document see Section outputs will generate a degree phase shift. It on this as a heartbeat. General experiences have operational frequency. High-switching frequencies can also cause bearing damages.

However, a switching frequency increase results in the motor voltage FFT improvement and, therefore, it tends to improve the motor thermal performance besides reducing noise. The default code already contains three predefined frequencies of: 1. The frequencies above were selectively chosen so as to minimize the overhead in calculations by using powers of 2 shifts only for multiplication and division. An isolated user input is labeled as being active when the input on the isolated side is driven high at typically 5V.

Table 17 shows the relative user configurable defines. Rotating the POT counter clockwise from the fully clockwise position will decrease the motor from full speed to idle and then full speed in reverse, as seen in Figure The biasing of S1 and S2, as well as all of the auxiliary inputs, is designed to allow the greatest voltage differential between the shared active elements. This is achieved by carefully-selected resistors in a voltage divider network.

This network provides a small voltage reading that is proportional to the current in the motor, as seen in Table Use this setting if the user wishes to reallocate the current trip POT to some other usage. Make this a multiple of 2 for code speed. A low-cost solution is one that selects the minimum amount of parts with as little performance overhead as possible to run the application.

Table 19 highlights some components that limit the flexibility of the inverter board. This design ensures that under full load, none of the components will be performing out of specification. This section will explore design limitations and optimizations that can be made. AN DC Bus Voltage Capacitors The voltage doubler consists of two capacitors that can optionally be configured by a single jumper W1 to The default DC bus capacitors have a capacitance of double the input voltage, as seen in Figure Too much heat dissipation will prematurely V Voltage V damage the capacitor.

The ripple current is related to the ripple voltage. The input frequency, or refresh rate, for the DC 12 13 in capacitors and total capacitance bank varies depending on whether the voltage doubler jumper is inserted.

The driving stage uses an International Rectifier three-phase gate driver for high-voltage applications. If the W1 jumper is inserted, then the voltage across The design consideration between selecting FETs or both ends of the capacitors will be as seen in IGBTs is usually a function of switching frequency and Equation The IGBT in this particular voltage, but at a cost of increased ripple voltage and D2Pak can, therefore, dissipate up to 3.

If this happens, the capacitors 1. The FET can handle 2. It is Each capacitor will only see one half of the sine wave critical that the designer should note that the data sheet cycle. Therefore, the ripple voltage for the voltage specification of maximum current does not imply that doubler scenario will have a frequency that reflects the the device can handle that amount without a heat sink input frequency on a ratio see Equation AN Lower current applications will benefit from using FETs, Do not replace the fast-acting with general purpose while higher current applications with larger motors diodes.

The diodes must be fast-acting in order to should use IGBTs. Once the capacitors are energized, the resistance of the NTC will decrease rapidly to a very low value. A few items of data are needed to scale an inrush current limiter: 1.

Load capacitance of device to be protected 2. Steady-state current IMAX and maximum ambient temperature 3. Required reduction of inrush current to determine R25 of NTC inrush current limiters 4. For further details, please see Epcos application note The designer should determine the trade offs of the two listed under Reference 9.

Besides the switching elements, another design issue is the selection of gate resistors and bootstrap diodes and capacitors. The designer should be careful not to make this transition too slow in proportion to the switching frequency; if this condition is not met, the element will never switch full on or off. Please see Reference 11 from Avago Technologies for information in selecting the correct gate resistor. The diodes must be fast-acting in order to preserve the charge on the capacitors.

Its ambient resistance at rectified DC voltage into two separate and isolated room temperature is 2 Ohms, which should limit the power supplies. The designer should also instead of the microcontroller. A lower cost solution check the diode bridge to ensure that the peak current should dedicate a PWM module plus other monitoring is within the ratings. The steady-state current must be software to control the flyback power supply. Recall that large chosen to bias the output voltage to around V.

The 15V is used currents in the stator. Its gate the designer risks damaging the NTC. Please take this into The fast-acting diodes used in the input filter and output consideration when choosing an NTC. The resistance of the NTC is inversely be lowered and hence optimized after careful proportional to the rise of the ambient temperature.

Place these capacitors as close to the integrated circuits as possible. The NTC must be given sufficient time to bring itself back to room temperature after it has been consuming The layout of the PCB should closely match that of the current, before the inverter board is switched back on. LNK data sheet.

Since large capacitors are being charged in this application, Linear Regulators the large time constant associated with these The MCPA provides the step-down voltage from capacitors will usually cause the NTC to release 16V to 5V on both secondaries of the transformer. The thermal energy faster than the capacitors becoming MCPA is operating at its maximum input voltage fully discharged.

The bleed-off resistors of R8 and R13 of 16V. If the flyback regulation causes voltage spikes should be adjusted to tweak the RC time constant. Another consideration is the package of the regulators. The maximum power dissipation is shown in Equation It is evident that the placement of the inrush limiter is critical; therefore, it should be placed so as not to touch or heat up any adjacent components.

Power consumption higher than mW These are placed as close to the would require reducing the ambient temperature or microcontroller pin as possible. The total allotted current for the SOT regulator is as The feedback resistor must be carefully selected. The shown in Equation The inverter has a 5W 0. The total power consumed is therefore 3. The for this inverter board is 10V. If the voltage across the resistor rises to 5V, the designer risks the inverter Motor Feedback Current Sense malfunctioning and damaging the driver.

The current feedback system is a very simple and The designer may also want to include a hardware low-cost solution. In some motor applications, a Fault-protection circuit to handle fast Fault type events. The solution provided in Figure 44 presents a low-side current sense that consists of only a few discrete components. The designer should be aware of: optocoupler can be biased in two modes of operation: 1. No power factor correction on the input stage Linear mode and Digital Logic mode.

These two modes can easily be modified by the designer by changing 2. Decreased horsepower output compared to that only one resistor R2 , as shown in Figure The following lists some endeavors that should enhance this document further: 1. Characterize more than one split-phase motor 2. Test a three-phase motor 3. Reservoir, submerged wood Ranghoo et al.

Submersisphaeria K. Hyde, Nova Hedwigia 62 1—2 : Atractosporales Zhang et al. Notes: Holotype PRM Luo, K. Su, sp. RPB2 sequence data are available. Atractospora ellipsoidea Ho et al. Fryar et al. Sexual morph Shearer Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. LSU globose to subglobose, unilocular.

Ostiole periphysate. Atractospora thailandensis Dong et al. Fourn 18—, holotype. Sexual morph Description and smaller ascospores 15—19 vs. Atractospora aquatica also resembles A. However, Atractospora abscondita, collected from freshwater in France. This is a aquatica differs from A. Yverneaux, on submerged twigs of Abies alba in a peat bog Sequence data is unavailable. Diaporthales Nannf. Asexual morph: Undetermined Diaporthaceae Hohn. Barr, Mycotaxon 60 globose.

Conidiophores cylindrical, sometimes filiform, Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Ascomata aseptate or septate, cylindrical, sometimes branched. Coni- subglobose to obpyriform to lageniform, brown or exter- dia dimorphic, hyaline, smooth, with usually fusiform and nally with yellowish pigments, glabrous or slightly rugose, biguttulate alpha conidia and usually filiform, hamate, non- with short to long papilla or with long upright neck.

Sexual morph Ascomata globose to Peridium comprising two or three layers. Paraphyses subglobose, coriaceous, immersed to semi-immersed, sin- numerous, septate, hyaline. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, gle to clustered, brown to black. Neck cylindrical, black. Paraphyses cylindrical, longer than asci, septate.

Asci remnants attached to the ascogenous hyphae after dehis- 8-spored, unitunicate, thin-walled, apedicellate, broad cence. Ascospores ellipsoidal to reniform to navicular, cylindrical to obclavate, with a minute apical ring. As- aseptate or transversely 1-septate with one or two polar cospores overlapping biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform, germ pores, brown.

Type species: Diaporthe eres Nitschke, Pyrenomyc. Barr, Mycotaxon 61 Germ. Three species have been names in the genus Diaporthe, but this was reduced to found in freshwater habitats. Hu et al. Cai duced a new Diaporthe species D. Diaporthe aquatica Hu et al. Gnomoniaceae G. LSU sequence data is Asexual morph Undetermined. Sexual morph Descrip- available. Jobellisia luteola was originally collected from tions and illustrations refer to Senanayake et al.

Sogonov et al. Hyde rum. Monod in host associations. Distribution: Malaysia, on submerged wood Ho et al. Ambarignomonia petiolorum Schwein. Sogonov Asexual morph: Undetermined Ges. Leipzig 1: Gnomoniella : Gnomonia petiolorum Schwein. Cooke, Gre- microspora was originally collected from terrestrial habi- villea 7: 54 tats Monod Same as Gno- specimens collected from freshwater habitats: ILLS , moniella microspora, the original collection of G.

However, we sequence data are available. Fallah and Shearer consider this species as freshwater fungus as Ho et al. Colonies on PDA effuse, Ambarignomonia petiolorum. Conidio- Gnomonia Ces.

Asexual morph see Sivanesan and Shaw Sexual Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, determinate, with morph Description see Maharachchikumbura et al.

Conidia straight or curved, oblong, hya- Type species: Gnomonia vulgaris Ces. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed, subglo- Comm. Peridium composed of 2 layers, with and De Notaris and typified by Gnomonia gnomon. Paraphyses hyaline, broad, septate. Asci unituni- Shaw ; Fallah and Shearer ; Senanayake et al. J-, subapical ring. Ascospores cylindrical, straight or Gnomonia papuana Sivan. Shaw curved, versicolorous, transseptate, brown with hyaline or Distribution: Papua New Guinea, on submerged leaves pale brown end cells.

Sivanesan and Shaw Sequence data is not Phruensis with a single species P. No more species reported for Gnomoniella Sacc. Sexual morph Ascomata Phruensis brunneispora Pinruan globose to subglobose, immersed.

Asci cylindrical, subsessiles. Ascospores fusiform, horn peat swamp forest, on submerged palm in freshwater ellipse, hyaline, septate. Type species: Gnomoniella tubaeformis Tode Sacc. Abellini 1: b Notes: Kirk et al. SSU genus Gnomoniella. Two species have been found in sequence data is available. Culture on PDA from above i and reverse j.

Culture on PDA from surface l and reverse m. Culture on PDA from above n and reverse o. Culture on MEA from above l and reverse m. Scale bars: c—k 30 lm Distoseptisporales Z.

Luo, H. Hyde, ord. Conidio- Notes: Distoseptisporaceae was established by Su et al. Conidiogenous phology and phylogeny. Culture on PDA from above o and reverse p. Scale Distoseptisporales. Phylogenetic results show that Asexual morph Description and illustration see Su et al.

Distoseptispora appendiculata is distinct from other spe- and Yang et al. Sexual morph cies of Distoseptispora Fig. Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al. Type species: Distoseptispora aquatica Luo et al. Notes: Su et al. Currently, there are 13 species in Dis- Distoseptispora cangshanensis Luo et al. Mountain, on submerged wood Luo et al.

Sexual morph: Undetermined Distoseptispora appendiculata D. Bao, Z. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or Distoseptispora guttulata J.

Hyde mid-brown, hairy, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed, Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Conidiophores 62—86 lm long, 4. Mycelium partly superficial, partly matous, solitary, erect, straight or flexuous, olivaceous or immersed, consisting of branched, septate, smooth, sub- brown, 5—6-septate, smooth. Conidiogenous cells hyaline to pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores 28—84 lm monoblastic, holoblastic, terminal, dark brown. Conidiogenous below, hyaline towards apex, truncate at base, slender and cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate, mid to rounded at apex, smooth, with a conspicuous, gelatinous, dark brown, cylindrical, sometimes proliferating percur- hyaline sheath around tip.

Sexual morph Undetermined. Conidia 70— — lm long, 8. Notes: Distoseptispora appendiculata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora appendicu- lata is easily distinguished from D. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood value of – RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater 5—9-euseptate conidia, while D. Bayesian euseptate conidia. Phylogenetically, Distoseptispora gut- posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Ex-type or ex-epitype strains are in species Fig.

Hyde Facesoffungi number: FoF , Fig. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olive- et al. Conidiophores 29—47 lm long, 4—6 lm Distoseptispora guttulata was introduced by matous, solitary, brown, 2—3-septate, straight or slightly Yang et al.

Morphologically, our iso- apex, olive-green to dark brown. Conidiogenous cells late fits well with the characters of D. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our isolate determinate, cylindrical.

Conidia — lm long, 12— clusters with ex-type of D. Conidial seces- K. Hyde, sp. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, scattered, hairy, Hua Hin, on submerged wood in a stream Hyde et al. Mycelium mostly immersed, com- b. Distoseptispora multiseptata was introduced by uous, 6—septate, unbranched, cylindrical, brown, Yang et al.

Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, integrated, ter- freshwater stream in Thailand. Morphologically, our iso- minal, determinate, brown, cylindrical. Conidia 60— late fits well with the characters of D. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that our acrogenous, solitary or catenate, obclavate, truncate at isolate clusters with ex-type of D. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, dark olivaceous, cylindrical, septate conidiophores, solitary or in groups on hairy.

Scale bars: b, c lm, Notes: Distoseptispora obclavata resembles D. However, Distoseptispora brown hyphae. Conidiophores 93— lm long, 5.

Phylogenetic results show that Distosep- flexuous, tapering distally, truncate at the apex. Conidio- tispora appendiculata is distinct from other species of genous cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, brown, Distoseptispora Fig. Conidia — lm long, 13—15 lm wide Distoseptispora obpyriformis Z.

Notes: Distoseptispora neorostrata shares similar mor- Sexual morph: Undetermined phological characters with D. However, the multi-gene phylogenetic analyses Distoseptispora rostrata Luo et al. Su, on submerged wood Luo et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, olivaceous or on submerged wood Luo et al. Conidiophores Conidiogenous cells River Yang et al.

Sexual Distoseptisporales genera incertae sedis morph Undetermined. Aquapteridospora Yang et al. Yang, K. Both of these species also Notes: Yang et al. Aquapteridospora with single asexual species, A lignicola, However, A.

In this study, we introduce the second species without a sheath, while the conidia of A. Aquapteridospora was placed as guttules in the middle cells and a conspicuous sheath. Diaporthomycetidae genera incertae sedis by Yang et al.

Phylogenetic analysis also shows that A. In our phylogenetic analysis, Aquapteridospora lignicola are distinct from other species, but they cluster species form a distinct clade within Distoseptisporales and together with strong support Fig.

To further basal to Distoseptisporaceae, and we therefore treat this support A. Aquapteridospora lignicola Yang et al. Sexual morph: Undetermined Magnaporthales Thongk et al. LSU sequence data is Ceratosphaeriaceae Z.

Hyde, available. Aquapteridospora fusiformis Z. Luo, D. Bao, H. Phialides or short number: FoF , Fig. Conidiogenous cells fungus. Conidia cylindrical, hyaline, aseptate, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater. Sexual morph Stromata absent. Ascomata globose Asexual morph Colonies on the natural substrate effuse, to pyriform, deeply immersed to almost superficial, dark hairy, pale brown to brown. Mycelium superficial or partly brown to black, carbonaceous, with a long cylindrical, immersed, composed of branched, septate, pale brown to black or yellow crystals neck.

Periphyses well-developed. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, fairly tate, smooth, thick-walled, brown at the base, paler towards thin-walled, the apex truncate, with a conspicuous J-apical apex. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, terminal, later ring. Ascospores arranged biseriately, narrowly cylindric- becoming intercalary, pale brown, integrated, with several fusiform, or filiform, the ends acute, thin-walled, hyaline, sympodial proliferations, bearing tiny, protuberant, circular septate, guttulate, smooth-walled.

Conidia 14—18 lm long, 5—7 lm wide Type genus: Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh. Phylogeneti- Undetermined. Morphologically, Pseudohalonectriaceae is 18—, holotype , ex-type living culture MFLUCC characterized by erumpent to immersed ascomata with a 18— Scale b Appearance of neck on substrate.

Culture on PDA from surface k and reverse l. Scale bars: b lm, c 50 lm, d— Holotype: MFLU 18— f 30 lm, g—j 20 lm Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater habitats.

Sexual morph Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. Ceratosphaeriaceae is distinct solitary. Neck long, surface smooth, at times with yellow from Pseudohalonectriaceae in having narrowly cylindric- crystals. Peridium 29—43 lm thick, composed of an inner fusiform to filiform, longer ascospores.

We therefore layer of flattened hyaline cells, a middle layer of small, introduce a new family Ceratosphaeriaceae to accommo- polygonal to irregular, pale brown cells, an outer layer of date Ceratosphaeria. Pa- Ceratosphaeria Niessl, Verh. Ascospores 89—95 9 4— slimy, inconspicuous, and transparent. Conidia cylin- Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, saprobic drical with curvature, hyaline, narrowly rounded at both on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater river, April ends, aseptate, smooth.

However, Cer- detached, scattered to densely aggregated. Peridium com- atosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Interascal tissue of tulate, septate, larger ascospores 89—95 9 4—7 vs. Ceratosphaeria aquatica also periphyses well-developed. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, shares similar morphological characters with C. However, conspicuous, J-, apical ring. Ascospores arranged biseri- Ceratosphaeria aquatica differs from C. Type species: Ceratosphaeria lampadophora Berk.

Notes: The genus Ceratosphaeria was introduced by nat. In this study, we introduce two new species 67 7 : in Ceratosphaeria. Asexual morph: Harpophora-like. Ceratosphaeria aquatica Z. The best scoring RAxML tree with a final likelihood 94— vs. RAxML bootstrap support fusiform, 5—7-septate ascospores.

Bayesian posterior probability equal to or higher than 0. Cannon than 0. Newly generated sequences are in red. Ex-type or ex- Aquafiliformis Z. Su, gen. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed with neck swamps Shearer and Crane Peridium composed of an inner Notes: Sequence data is not available. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical number: FoF , Fig.

Ascospores filiform, aseptate, guttulate, Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling on wood. Su freshwater. Sexual morph Notes: Aquafiliformis morphologically resembles Cer- Ascomata — lm diam.

Peridium Paraphyses 18— clusters in Magnaporthaceae, while Cer- 4. Asci — 9 11—13 lm atosphaeriaceae Fig. Twenty genera with available molecular Ascospores 94— 9 3. However, our decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream, October strain differs from Muraeriata species in having globose to , Z. Ceratosphaeria lignicola differs ascospores, while Muraeriata species have lageniform to from C.

Cer- creating large empty pockets, with an external brown crust atosphaeria lignicola also shares similar morphological and narrowly fusiform, septate ascospores Huhndorf et al. Curtis Sacc. Abellini 2: Nograsek ; Hyde a. Therefore, we introduce a Notes: Saccardo introduced Ophioceras based on new genus Aquafiliformis to accommodate our collections. Ophioceras Aquafiliformis lignicola Z. Su, species are commonly encountered on decaying woody sp. Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling on wood.

Ophioceras aquaticus Hu et al. Sexual morph Asexual morph: Undetermined Ascomata — lm high, — lm diam. Peridium Ophioceras arcuatisporum Shearer et al.

Paraphyses 4. Sequence data drical to clavate, hyaline. Ascospores 57—69 9 2. However, Aquafiliformis lignicola differs Ophioceras dolichostomum Berk. Curtis Sacc from Neogaeumannomyces bambusicola in having differ- : Sphaeria dolichostoma Berk. Curtis, Soc. Aquafiliformis Bot. Phyloge- wood Hyde b ; Japan, Koito River, on submerged netic analysis also support that they belong to different wood Tsui et al. Ophioceraceae Klaubauf et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Ophioceras Sacc. Abellini 2: Notes: Holotype anon.

Peridium thick, blackened. Pa- Ophioceras fusiforme Shearer et al. Asci 8-spored, cylindrical, with small, refractive, apical rings. Culture on PDA from above k and reverse l. Scale bars: apically rounded. Lin, stream, on submerged decorticated woody debris Shearer B MFLU 18—, holotype , ex-type living culture, et al. SSU sequence based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses and is related to data obtained from ex-type culture is available.

Ophioceras submersum resembles O. Lain Tsuen gense in having subglobose, black ascomata with a long River, on submerged wood Tsui et al. However, Ophio- Asexual morph: Undetermined ceras submersum differs from O.

Sequence data is not smaller ascomata and longer asci Tsui et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that they are distinct Ophioceras hongkongense Tsui et al. Lain Tsuen Ophioceras tenuisporum Shearer et al. River, on submerged wood Tsui et al. Iqbal J. Walker tubulin sequence data are available. Synonym: Gaeumannomyces leptosporus S. Iqbal, Ophioceras venezuelense Shearer et al. Ophioceras submersum D. Muroi, Trans. Japan 19 2 : Etymology: Referring to the submerged habitats of the Asexual morph Hyphomycetous, phialidic.

Phialides fungus hyaline, micronematous, flask-shaped. Sexual morph Ascomata immersed or Saprobic on decaying wood, submerged wood in partially immersed, with a long neck, globose to subglo- freshwater. Sexual morph bose. Peridium membranous. Paraphyses numerous, sep- Ascomata — lm diam. Asci unitunicate, cylindrical, straight or solitary, deeply immersed, subglobose or ellipsoidal, cori- curved, with J-, thimble-shaped apical ring. Ascospores aceous, black, with a long black neck.

Ostiole central, with overlapping uniseriate to biseriate, multi-seriate, filiformes, straight upright neck at one end, black, periphysate. Japan 19 2 : layer of pseudoparenchyma cells occluded with brown Notes: The genus Pseudohalonectria was introduced to amorphous material, dark brown cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses 7—10 lm wide, hyaline, septate, constricted at Hongsanan et al.

Sixteen species are accepted in this submerged woody debris from Deer Pond Shearer genus, of which six species have been reported from a, b. Sequence data is not Pseudohalonectria adversaria Shearer available. The best the forward slash red. Newly generated sequences is presented. RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater than are in red. Ascospores ellip- from Quiver Creek Shearer Asexual morph: Undetermined Type species: Myrmecridium schulzeri Sacc.

Twelve species are accepted in this genus submerged wood Cai et al. Peintner et al. Muroi Myrmecridium aquaticum Z. Mycelium immersed, Pseudohalonectria longirostrum Shearer composed of septate, branched, smooth, hyaline hyphae. Distribution: Panama, a twig submerged in Shannon Conidiophores — lm long, 5—7 lm wide Creek Shearer Sequence data is not cylindrical, percurrently proliferating, brown, paler available.

Conidiogenous Pseudohalonectria lutea Shearer cells holoblastic, polyblastic, integrated, terminal, later Distribution: China, Yunnan Province, Lake Fuxian, on becoming intercalary, subhyaline to pale brown. Conidia submerged wood Cai et al. LSU Sexual morph Undetermined sequence data is available. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, integrated, freshwater stream, March , X. Liu, S Conidia solitary, subhyaline, Notes: Myrmecridium aquaticum resembles M.

Sexual morph Ascomata solitary or brown conidiophores, integrated, terminal and intercalary aggregated in small groups, immersed, hyaline to pale conidiogenous cells and obovoid, smooth conidia rounded brown. Papilla or short necks centrally located, opening at the apex Crous et al. However, Myrmecridium flush with the wood surface or slightly projecting. Ostiole aquaticum differs from M. Clypeus positioned slightly beneath the wood conidiophores — vs.

Ascomatal wall two layered. Paraphyses hyaline, longer conidia 14—16 vs. Phylogenetic Distribution: India, on submerged wood in freshwater analysis shows that Myrmecridium aquaticum is distinct Chary and Ramarao Asexual morph: Undetermined Myrmecridium fluviae Hyang B. Nguyen Notes: Sequence data is not available. River located in Gwangju, from a freshwater sample Phomatosporaceae Senan.

Hyde Tibpromma et al. Phomatospora Sacc. Sexual morph Ascomata solitary to rarely sequence data are available. Peridium com- Notes: Holotype PRM , other specimens col- prising small, brown pseudoparenchymatous cells forming lected from freshwater habitats: PRM , PRM a textura angularis to textura prismatica or inner, hyaline, Asci 8-spored, unitu- Subbaromyces Hesselt. Torrey bot. Club nicate, cylindrical or oblong-fusiform, thin-walled, short stalked or sessile, apex oblong with J-, apical apparatus.

Asexual morph Conidiophores branched, septate. Conidia Ascospores uniseriate, rarely biseriate, overlapping unise- hyaline, smooth-walled, asepate, exogenously formed, riate to biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform, 0—3-septate, not ellipsoid.

Sexual morph Ascomata partially submerged, constricted at the septum, sometimes bi-guttulate, guttules later superficial, membranous, syringe-shaped, beak divi- located at the ends of the cell, or longitudinally striate, ded into two portions by a large pronounced collar, with sometimes with filamentous appendages at both ends, upper portion tapering to a small ostiole, surrounded by a hyaline.

Paraphyses absent. Asci 8-spored, uni- Type species: Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc. Ascospores bot. Senanayake et al. Club modate the genera Phomatospora, Lanspora and Notes: The genus was established by Hesseltine Tenuimurus. Members of the genus Phomatospora are for a taxon collected from trickling filter rocks in New widely distributed in freshwater, marine and terrestrial York, USA. Two species were accepted within this genus habitats.

Seven species of Phomatospora are known from Hesseltine ; Chary and Ramarao Muroi samples collected in India. In updated Sequence data is not Maharachchikumbura et al. Phomatospora berkeleyi Sacc Subbaromyces aquaticus Manohar. Freunde, Berlin stems of Typha latifolia; Wisconsin, Trout lake, on sub- 3 1—2 : 41 merged stems of Carex comosa, Big Muskellunge lake, on Asexual morph Descriptions and illustrations refer to Su submerged stems of Scirpus brevicaudatus, Allequash lake, et al.

Sexual morph Descriptions and illustrations on submerged stems of Typha latifolia Fallah and Shearer refer to Zhang et al. Type species: Sporidesmium atrum Link, Mag. Asexual morph: Undetermined naturf. Sporidesmium Phomatospora is a large and heterogeneous genus with epithets berkeleyi was originally collected from dead stalks of referred to the genus in Index Fungorum December Solanum on terrestrial habitats Saccardo Fallah and However, many previously described species were revised Shearer collected this species from freshwater and transferred to over 30 genera Iturriaga et al.

Studies based on phylogenetic analyses have been carried Phomatospora helvetica H. Lechat Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum J. Park, on submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium cangshanense Z. Hyde, Asexual morph: Undetermined nom.

Sequence data is not Facesoffungi number: FoF available. Su, Z. Sequence data is not cangshanense. Sporidesmium dulongense Luo et al. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that Sexual morph: Undetermined Sporidesmium lageniforme and S. TEF1a sequence data are available. Sporidesmium lignicola Z. Su, Sporidesmium fluminicola H. Hyde sp. Etymology: Referring to the fungus dwelling on wood.

Asexual morph Colonies effuse on natural sub- Sporidesmium gyrinomorphum Yang et al. Mycelium Distribution: Thailand, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, immersed, composed of septate, branched, brown, smooth on decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream Yang hyphae.

Conidiophores 50—70 lm long, 3—4 lm wide et al. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, 17— Conidia 21—27 lm long, 4. Ostiole — lm long, 78— lm wide, Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater. Peridium 30—44 lm thick, two- effuse, scattered, hairy, black. Mycelium mostly immersed, layered, outer layer comprising pale brown to brown, comprising of branched, septate, smooth-walled, brown oblong and rounded cells, inner layer comprising several hyphae. Paraphyses 2. Asci greyish brown to dark brown, smooth.

Sporidesmium lageniforme differs erumpent through the host surface, hyaline, unbranched, from S. The asexual an apical ring and fusiform, hyaline ascospores Zhang morph of Sporidesmium lignicola can be easily distin- et al.

However, Sporidesmium lignicola differs from guished from other Sporidesmium asexual morph species in S. We therefore small guttules, while S. Hyde larette funnel-shaped. Conidia cylindrical, ellipsoid or Distribution: Thailand, Chiang Rai Province, stream obovoid, thick-walled, brown, aseptate. Paraphyses Sporidesmium pyriformatum J. Hyde present but deliquescent, irregular in width, rarely septate, Distribution: Thailand, Khiri Khan Province, Hua Hin, tapering towards the apices, embedded in a mucilaginous stream flowing outside Kaeng Krachan National Park, on matrix.

Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, submerged wood Hyde et al. Sporidesmium submersum H. Pinruan et al. This species was apparently linked sequence data are available. This Sporidesmium thailandense Dong et al. Tirisporellaceae, typified by a new genus Tirisporella a, b; Yang et al. Jones, K. The genus Thailan- Asexual morph: Undetermined diomyces phylogenetically resides in this family. Sporidesmium tropicale M.

Togniniales Senan. Sporidesmium hyphae, single or bundled. Conidiophores branched in the tropicale was found on dead branches of woody plants and basal region or unbranched, arising from aerial or sub- is widely distributed in tropical areas Ellis ; Wu and merged hyphae, erect, nearly cylindrical when unbranched, Zhuang Conidiogenous cells mostly monophialidic, discrete or Tirisporellales Suetrong et al.

Conidia aggregated into round, slimy heads at Fungal Diversity 91 the apices of phialides, aseptate, hyaline, smooth-walled; Asexual morph Colonies on natural substrate effuse, oblong-ellipsoidal to obovate, cylindrical, allantoid or black. Mycelium superficial. Conidiophores macronema- reniform, uncommonly fusiform-ellipsoidal or globose, tous, mononematous, erect, brown, paler towards the apex, becoming guttulate with age.

Sexual morph Ascomata straight or flexuous, branched or unbranched. Culture on PDA from above h and reverse i. Paraphyses abundant, broadly cellular, slightly conical around the ostiole, papillate, dark brown to black, constricted at the septa, branching, hyaline, slightly taper- glabrous. Peridium leathery to fragile, consisting of two ing apically or thread-like towards the apex.

Asci 8-spored, regions; outer region of carbonaceous, dark brown, angular unitunicate, arising in acropetal succession, appearing to rectangular cells; inner region of hyaline, thin-walled, spicate when mature, ascal apex thickened without a dis- elongated, compressed cells. Ostiolar canal periphysate. As- Paraphyses persistent, branched, hyaline, septate, irregular cospores mostly biseriate or in a single row, allantoid, in width.

Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical-clavate, reniform, cylindrical or oblong-ellipsoidal, aseptate, with long, slender stipe, broadly rounded to truncate at the hyaline. Wang Gams et al. Notes: Phaeoacremonium has recently been mono- Type species: Brachysporium obovatum Berk. Abellini 4: Maharachchikumbura et al. Phaeoacremonium Notes: The asexual morph genus Brachysporium was species are saprobic on plants, or pathogenic on human and established by Saccardo in Gramaje et al.

Many Brachysporium species were this species as Phaeoacremonium aquaticum. Mycologia 6 : Some species were also described from marine habitats, e. Among the accepted Brachyspo- Mengla County, on submerged wood in a small stream Hu rium species, only two are known from freshwater habitats et al.

Lamore and Goos ; Raja et al. Asexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium obovatum Berk. ITS sequence data is : Helminthosporium obovatum Berk. Magazine of Natural History 6: Phaeoacremonium ovale Huang et al. Notes: Sequence data is not available. Sexual morph: Undetermined Brachysporium nigrum Link S. Trichosphaeriales M. Winter available. Brachysporium Sacc. Abellini 4: Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown, velvety.

Myce- Unisetosphaeria Pinnoi et al. Sexual morph Ascomata subhyaline to brown hyphae. Conidiophores mononema- immersed to superficial, scattered, pyriform, hyaline to tous, macronematous, erect, straight or slightly flexuous, light brown, dark brown near the apex, coriaceous, ostio- smooth, thick-walled, septate, unbranched, cylindrical, late, papillate.

Papilla periphysate, surrounded by short brown in the bottom, paler and tapering toward the apex. Seta single, composed of several rows of brown Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, terminal, integrated, cells, arising from the ostiolar region.

Peridium composed hyaline, denticulate, proliferating sympodially. Conidia of angular brown-walled cells. Paraphyses sparse, obscure, acropleurogenous, septate, smooth, thick-walled, fusoid to comprising short rows of ovoid to oblong cells. Asci limoniform, polar cells subhyaline, narrowing at the apex, 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, short pedicellate, apically median cells brown.

Ascospores and acropleurogenous, aseptate or septate conidia Hughes 2-seriate, septate, hyaline. The Type species: Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi phylogenetic analysis show that our Neospadicoides spe- et al. Its taxonomic placement was between coidaceae Xenospadicoidales Fig. Chaetosphaeriaceae and Trichosphaeriaceae. However, Neospadicoides aquatica Z. Su, Unisetosphaeri penguinoides has several incompatible sp. The characters of asco- number: FoF , Fig.

Thus, it was fungus. This suggestion was followed by Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Maharachchikumbura et al. Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark Unisetosphaeria penguinoides Pinnoi et al. Mycelium partly superficial, partly immersed, Distribution: Thailand, Narathiwat Province, on sub- composed of septate, branched, smooth, pale brown merged petiole of Eleiodoxa conferta Pinnoi et al.

Sequence data is not mononematous, solitary or in groups, erect, unbranched, available. Xenospadicoidales Hern. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, integrated, terminal, sub- Xenospadicoidaceae Hern. Conidia 18—22 lm Neospadicoides Z.

Asexual morph Colonies led. Mycelium partly Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Gaoligong superficial, partly immersed, composed of septate, bran- Mountain, saprobic on decaying wood submerged in a fresh- ched, smooth, pale brown hyphae. Conidiophores water stream, July , X. Conidiogenous americana in having macronematous, mononematous, cells holoblastic, enteroblastic, percurrent, polytretic, erect, unbranched, septate, solitary or in groups conidio- integrated, terminal.

Conidia acrogenous or acropleuroge- phores paler towards the apex, integrated, terminal conid- nous, fusiform, obovoid, septate, smooth-walled. Sexual iogenous cells and 2-septate, smooth conidia Wongsawas morph Undetermined. However, Neospadicoides aquatica differs Type species: Neospadicoides lignicola Z.

Su 18—22 9 7—9 vs. Spadicoides in having effuse, hairy colonies on natural Neospadicoides lignicola Z. Su, substrate, mycelium composed of septate, branched, sp. However, Holotype: MFLU 18— Neospadicoides differs from Spadicoides in having Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater unbranched conidiophores and acrogenous or acropleu- habitats.

Asexual morph Colonies effuse, brown to dark rogenous, septate conidia while Spadicoides have branched brown. Culture on MEA, q from above, r from reverse. Scale bars: c— towards the apex, straight or slightly flexuous, cylindrical, f 50 lm, g—p 15 lm septate, smooth, thick-walled, occasionally swollen at the apex.

Conidiogenous cells polytretic, integrated, terminal and intercalary, with pale colored pores remaining at the conidiogenous loci. Conidia 7. Sexual morph towards the apex, smooth. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, Undetermined. Sexual morph coides hodgkissa in having macronematous, mononema- Undetermined. However, Neospadicoides yunnanensis or in groups, erect, unbranched, septate, straight or flexu- differs from Spadicoides hodgkissa in having pale brown ous, cylindrical, brown conidiophores paler towards the conidia with dark band at basal euseptum while Spadi- apex, integrated, terminal conidiogenous cells and obovoid, coides hodgkissa has versicolored conidia comprising a septate, guttulate conidia this study.

However, proximal euseptum and a distal distoseptum and the distal Neospadicoides lignicola differs from N. Phylogenetic analysis also shows that N.

Hughes, Can. Hughes with S. Goh and Neospadicoides yunnanensis Z. Hyde a briefly discussed the generic concept of Su, sp. Thirty-one Spadicoides species were revised, Index Fungorum number: IF , Facesoffungi of which 21 species were accepted.

Presently, 55 epithets number: FoF , Fig. Saprobic on decaying wood submerged in freshwater Seven species are known from freshwater habitats habitats. Asexual morph Colonies on decaying wood Goh and Hyde a; Ho et al. Mycelium partly immersed in the a, a, b, c; Zhuang Wang branched hyphae. Scale bars: e, imen. HMZFW Type species: Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Spadicoides atra Corda S.

Hughes Res. Torrentispora Distribution: China, Hong Kong, on submerged wood comprises seven species from freshwater habitats. Zhuang Torrentispora aquatica Vijaykr. LSU sequence data is available. Hyde Torrentispora biatriispora K. Distribution: Australia, Queensland, on submerged Mill.

Sequence data is not : Pseudoannulatascus biatriisporus K. Hyde Z. This species is known only from Australia on Luo et al. Reservoir, on submerged wood Tsui et al. Distribution: France, on submerged wood of Fraxinus a.

In this study, we introduce a new species and a is presented. RAxML bootstrap support values equal to or greater than new combination for this genus. Maximum parsimony have been reported from freshwater habitats. Newly generated sequences K. Hyde, comb. Ex-type strains are in bold : Barbatosphaeria aquatica N. Hyde, in Hyde et al. Sequence data is Ban Nang Lae Nai, on decaying wood submerged in a unavailable. Torrentispora fibrosa Hyde et al. Our phylo- on decaying wood of Nothofagus sp.

Morphology of specimen collected from freshwater habitats PDD Hyde diophores; monoblastic, terminal, integrated conidiogenous Distribution: Brunei, on submerged wood Fryar and cells; solitary, dry, clavate, green to brown conidia, with Hyde Sequence data is not phylogenetic analyses, we synonymize Barbatosphaeria available.

This species is known only from Brunei on aquatica under Acrodictys aquatica. Su, and Hyde Etymology: Referring to this fungus dwelling in a Asexual morph: Undetermined stream. Notes: Holotype ILL Sequence data is not Holotype: DLU available.


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By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. To browse Academia. Laboratory data is presented alongside the simulated data in an extensive reasoning of the entire design. The purpose of this application note is to show how to add bootetrapping windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping and soft-start to a single and multi-phase AC induction motor by using a three-phase inverter circuit.

After analyzing this document, the reader can easily integrate the reference design and associated materials into a competitive product. The design does not include power factor correction because of the low-cost initiative. Gokce Mehmet AY. Editor IEEJ. Marwan Abou El-ela. Pablo Rigo. Shlomo B”H. Marius Chitimus. Sabiyulla Rahamathullah. Gautam Sarkar. Giovanni Lo Calzo. Mahmoud Itasfa. Ewen Ritchie. G Muni V Mahesh. Alvin Gerdy. Za Byter. Rizky Wahyu Febriyanto. Ikhsan Hadrian.

Zemen Addiss. Pathirage Somadasa. Manan Shah. Brian Hadley. Ouertani Rabeb. Huynh Hao. Axinte Andrei. Marco Rivera. Wensong Yu. Ants Kallaste.

Johann Kolar. Steven Bible. Akin Acar. Andrei Cozma. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping to sign up. Download Free PDF. Rajesh Patnaik.

Related Papers. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development. For further induction motor by using a three-phase inverter circuit.

After analyzing this document, the reader can www. The design does The last chapter of this document contains windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping list of not include power factor correction because of the recommendations that the reader may want to further low-cost initiative. Hardware optimizations for different types of motors and input voltages are detailed. A dynamometer and a power analyzer are used to characterize the reference design.

The entire procedure and materials itascx in this document will provide the reader with enough material to design a repeatable experiment. Three-phase applications can also utilize this board with minimal software changes; however, this document does not provide a detailed bootstrzpping on the results. Instructions on the setup and testing procedure of a three-phase motor are covered in this application note.

It has low starting torque and The permanently http://replace.me/17367.txt capacitor trades off starting current; however, it incurs inefficiencies from the torque capability at standstill with ripple torque expensive, non-polarized run capacitor.

This capacitor reduction at windowd speed. Because of the high VA commonly fails before the rest of the motor, so there is rating of the capacitor, capacitors are often selected to a concern for maintenance because of this meet the minimum starting performance requirements, dependency. For motors windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping do not have identical windings, it is Topology necessary to feed the two phases with different voltages.

Consequently, this raises the unable to turn without sufficient phase shift between voltage across one of the windings and causes uneven the two windings. A capacitor can be placed current flow.

The switch is often replaced with a relay that can control the direction by swapping which phase leads or lags the other.

The value of the capacitor is typically specified by the motor manufacturer and is sometimes in the range of uF for motors that are less than 1 HP. The capacitor is carefully chosen in an attempt windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping correct the power factor for maximum windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping efficiency.

The voltage rating is typically high at around V, depending on the input voltage. The capacitor must not be polarized, since it is across an alternating voltage. If this capacitor fails, the motor will cease to turn. The importance of selecting the correct capacitor is therefore critical. This topology ihasca the benefit of being able to adjust the speed of the motor and apply the appropriate amount of voltage on each winding so that the weaker winding is not overdriven.

VDC is created after rectifying the AC input. See Figure 31 for the entire system overview. Equation 2 shows a general time domain expression of a sinusoidal wave that will be used to graph and analyze the voltages on the motor. Equation 3 shows the individual inverter phases windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping Phase VV is considered the neutral one.

Each downlosd applying the general representation of a time varying has VV as its reference. As Figure auto cad 2010 64 bits + crack free download shows, the peak voltage is much lower The resultant waveform across the motor does not than the original V.

The third fundamental is added to the sine VRMS source with capacitor. Figure 6 shows the a look-up table with the modified values. Table 1 shows a summary of the tests conducted.

Acceleration and Speed To identify which method turns the motor shaft the fastest and jso quickly the load will accelerate. Efficiency To compare the real component of the output power to the input power and to measure the power factor and other inefficiencies. These three tests cover the largest design considerations in motor control.

None of the tests require a special setup from the other tests. Each analysis in the three separate tests uses the same subset of windoqs. Equipment Table 2 lists the equipment used during the tests. Its nameplate readings can be seen in Table 3. AN This particular motor has a balanced winding configuration. Both windings are identical in terms of resistance and inductance. The results shown in this document will differ from other motors constructed in other windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping ways.

Test Setup The entire test setup can be seen in Figure 8. The programmable controller applies the test setup from the M-TEST 7 software to the dynamometer and reads the applied torque. All other readings are performed by the power analyzer and logged. The input to the system is single-phase, two-wire All tests lasted under 60 seconds because of the risk of 1P2W voltage at V, 60 Hz. The power analyzer is damaging the insulation of the motor as a result of large also configured for 1P2W on its single element input.

The inverter windows 10 1703 download iso itasca bootstrapping an optional recommendations on the subject of voltage doubler that is not used during the tests since prolonged stress testing locked rotor. When a test dkwnload running, the Property Value programmable controller adjusts the dynamometer to apply a specific braking force.

Before initiating a test, Switching Frequency 7. When the maximum speed for a specific Dead Band ns max. The duration of the test depends on the starting speed of the motor. When the test is complete, the power analyzer and The M-TEST software runs a dynamic ramp test with motor feedback readings are consolidated into a inertia cancellation on the motor.

A single dowlnoad rotor reading is extrapolated using 20 data points.